Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Heavy farm machinery compacts the soil, both on tilled ground and no-tilled ground. Compaction induced by agricultural machinery often affects soil properties and crop production. Axle load is the first factor that has to be considered in soil compaction, according to Randall Reeder, Ohio State University Emeriti and Sjoerd Duiker, Penn State Soil Specialist.Axle load is the total load supported by one axle, usually expressed in tons or pounds. Farm equipment with high axle loads on wet soil will cause compaction in the topsoil and subsoil, whereas low axle loads will cause compaction in the topsoil and the upper part of the subsoil only.Deep subsoil compaction can only partially be alleviated with subsoilers, and at considerable cost. Freezing/thawing and drying/wetting cycles have been shown not to remediate soil compaction at this depth.Finally, biological activity (such as cover crops) is concentrated in the topsoil except deep root crops (e.g. radish or annual ryegrass) and therefore also contributes little to alleviation of deep subsoil compaction. Therefore, avoiding deep subsoil compaction is critical. The key to eliminating deep subsoil compaction is to keep axle load low.Research has shown that a 10-ton axle load almost always causes deep subsoil compaction (more than 20 inches deep) under wet to moist field conditions. If the soil is dry, deep subsoil compaction is less likely, even with high axle loads.Contact pressure is the pressure that is exerted by a tire or track on the soil surface, expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). Reducing contact pressures will cause less topsoil compaction. In completely flexible tires, surface contact pressure is similar to tire pressure. Tires run at 35 psi caused higher stresses at 14 inches depth and created ruts that were more than twice as deep as tires run at 12 psi tire pressure. However, at 22 inches, no difference was noted in measured stress between both tires because the tire load was the same.Deep subsoil compaction is permanent and should be avoided at all costs. This can be done by keeping axle loads below 10 tons, and preferably below 6 tons. Compaction in the topsoil can be avoided by reducing tire pressure, using flotation tires, doubles, radial tires, or tracks, and by employing large-diameter tires. Reducing the number of trips over the field and reducing the total area per acre actually traveled are recommended. Driving on soil that is wetter than the plastic limit (soil crumbles, ideal for tillage) should be avoided at all times.More information can be found at https://extension.psu.edu/avoiding-soil-compaction.
SharePrint RelatedGeocaching.com Caption Contest 33 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeMay 4, 2012In “Community”Geocaching.com Caption Contest 31 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeFebruary 16, 2012In “Community”Geocaching Caption Contest 37 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeJanuary 6, 2013In “Community” WINNING CAPTION: “You must be at least this tall to find this geocache.” Vyp’s wifeGeocaching can often be a search for what’s hidden in plain sight. Share your gift for clever captions in the 30th installment of our Geocaching.com Caption Contest. You could earn a barely coveted prize. What caption would you write for the picture above? The image was originally posted on our Geocaching.com Facebook page by Thorsten Skibba.Submit your caption by clicking on “Comments” below. Please include your geocaching username in all entries. Then, explore the captions other geocachers have posted.Barely Coveted PrizeYou’re encouraged to ‘influence’ the voting process (*nudge*nudge*). “Like” the caption that you think should win. If you think your caption should win, convince your fellow geocachers, your friends, and family to “like” your caption. Lackeys vote from the top finalists to decide the winner of the contest.The winner receives the ‘barely coveted prize’ you see to the left, which may actually be quite coveted. It’s is a vintage ‘100 Years of Scouting’ Trackable.Click the image to see the winner of this caption contestMore than a two dozen Lackeys voted to award the winner of the 29th Geocaching.com Caption Contest a barely coveted prize. Click on the image at right to discover the winning caption from the last Geocaching.com Caption Contest.Explore all the past winning captions by checking out all the Geocaching.com Caption Contests. If you have suggestions for Geocaching.com Caption Contest photos, send a message and the image to [email protected] with your Friends:More
The Filipinos can still cap off the campaign on a positive note as they brace for El Salvador in the tournament closer.The Scores:SLOVENIA 21 – Ovnik 7, Finzgar 7, Srebovt 4, Kavgic 3.PHILIPPINES 14 – Ravena 7, Paras 4, Teng 2, Quiñahan 1.ADVERTISEMENT Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games WATCH: Firefighters rescue baby seal found in parking garage Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Kiefer Ravena skies for a layup in the Philippines’ game against Slovenia. Photo by Fiba.comThe Philippines bowed out of contention in the 2017 Fiba 3×3 World Cup with a 14-21 defeat to second-seed Slovenia Tuesday (Wednesday Manila time) at Parc des Chantiers de I’lle in Nantes, France.Overwhelmed from the get-go by the powerhouse Slovenians, the Filipinos struggled to find their rhythm and found themselves down early, 5-0, before stumbling to a 14-4 deficit courtesy of Simon Finzgar’s hot shooting.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES World’s 50 Best Restaurants launches new drinking and dining guide Parks ready to serve PH as Reyes welcomes him in Gilas pool Jordan delivers on promise: 2 Cobra choppers now in PH Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Kiefer Ravena rallied the troops and got the Philippines within four, 15-11, but Gasper Ovnik was quick to douse that run before Adin Kavgic iced the game from the free throw line with 1:20 left on the clock.Ovnik and Finzgar fired seven points apiece, Anze Srebovt added four markers, and Kavgic had three for Slovenia, which topped Pool B with a 4-0 slate to advance to the tournament quarterfinals.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutRavena led the Philippines (1-2) with seven points, while Kobe Paras chipped in four markers from a pair of two-pointers.Jeron Teng chimed in two points, while JR Quiñahan got one in the losing effort. Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken What ‘missteps’? View comments MOST READ 1 dead in Cavite blast, fire