The Chimp-Human 1% Difference: A Useful Lie

first_imgJon Cohen made a remarkable admission in Science this week.1  The popular notion that humans and chimpanzees are genetically 99% similar is a myth, and should be discarded.  Since 1975, textbooks, the media and museums have emphasized this close similarity; but now, Cohen quoted a number of scientists who say the number cannot possibly be that small and probably cannot be quantified.  Since the statistic has outlived its usefulness, it should be discarded.    The original claim by Allan Wilson in 1975 came from studies of base substitutions when genes were compared side by side.  Other comparisons, however, yield very different results.  Human and chimp genomes differ markedly in:Chunks of missing DNAExtra genesNumber of chromosomes and chromosome structureAltered connections in gene networksIndels (insertions and deletions)Gene copy numberCoexpressed genesIn this last measure, for instance, a 17.4% difference was found in genes expressed in the cerebral cortex.  Cohen recalled the December 2006 paper from PLoS One where Matthew Hahn found a “whopping 6.4%” difference in gene copy numbers, leading him to say, “gene duplication and loss may have played a greater role than nucleotide substitution in the evolution of uniquely human phenotypes and certainly a greater role than has been widely appreciated.” (see 12/20/2006 entry).    But even that number is misleading.  Different measures produce such different results, it is probably impossible to come up with a single percent difference that wouldn’t misrepresent the picture.  Scientists are not sure how to prioritize the measures to study, because “it remains a daunting task to link genotype to phenotype.”  Sorting out the differences that matter is “really difficult,” said one geneticist.  A stretch of DNA that appears meaningless may actually be vital for gene regulation.    What’s most remarkable about this confession is how certain evolutionary biologists are evaluating the claim in hindsight.  In the 1970s, it was considered a “heretical” view that our genomes could be that similar, but Cohen comments, “Subsequent studies bore their conclusion out, and today we take as a given that the two species are genetically 99% the same.”  But “Truth be told,” he begins in the next sentence, the inaccuracy of the statistic was known from the start:But truth be told, Wilson and King also noted that the 1% difference wasn’t the whole story.  They predicted that there must be profound differences outside genes—they focused on gene regulation—to account for the anatomical and behavioral disparities between our knuckle-dragging cousins and us.  Several recent studies have proven them perspicacious again, raising the question of whether the 1% truism should be retired.    “For many, many years, the 1% difference served us well because it was underappreciated how similar we were,” says Pascal Gagneux, a zoologist at UC San Diego.  “Now it’s totally clear that it’s more a hindrance for understanding than a help.”At the end of the article, Cohen quoted Svante Paabo, who said something even more revealing.  After admitting he didn’t think there was any way to calculate a single number, he said, “In the end, it’s a political and social and cultural thing about how we see our differences.”1Jon Cohen, News Focus on Evolutionary Biology, “Relative Differences: The Myth of 1%,” Science, 29 June 2007: Vol. 316. no. 5833, p. 1836, DOI: 10.1126/science.316.5833.1836.This is a very disturbing article.  We have basically caught the Darwinists in a bald lie that has hoodwinked the world for over 30 years.  Gagneux says, “For many, many years, the 1% difference served us well” – stop right there!  Who is “us”?  Was it the millions of school children and laymen who were lied to?  Was it the majority of people who believe God created mankind, suffering under an onslaught of lies told in the name of science?    No!  “Us” refers to the members of the Darwin Party, the dogmatists who shamelessly lied to advance their agenda.  They had a strategy to portray humans and chimpanzees as similar as possible, in order to make their myth of common descent seem more plausible.  Now, 32 years later, they have come clean, without any remorse, only because the usefulness of that lie has run out, and needs to be replaced by new lies.  They had a political, social and cultural agenda that, in many cases, worked for 32 years.  “Truth be told,” he said.  Too late.  These guys wouldn’t know Truth if it bit them on the lips.  Truth that evolves, or that is an emergent property of material particles, is not the Truth.    For other examples of the Useful Lie tactic used by Darwin propagandists, see 05/02/2003, 07/25/2003, 11/19/2004, 03/02/2006, 02/01/2007, 05/31/2007 and many others under the chain links Darwin and Education that have been exposed on this website.  Liars, we bare.  Buyers, beware.(Visited 99 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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Stats: Unleash Your Geocaching Geek

first_imgMaps, Charts & Graphs: Your Geocaching Stats RevealedIt’s a Geocaching Premium member perk you may not know about and a Basic member feature that’s fun to explore. Here’s the link you need: My Geocaching Statistics. We can talk about the cool graphs, the charts and the milestones, but you just have to see it. If you haven’t clicked on the link yet, here’s what you’ll get: Basic Members see “Your Caching Chronology” – a breakdown of your geocache finds with a look at the month you’ve found your most geocaches and the day of the week you’re most likely to geocache. Geocaching Premium members unlock detailed statistics. It’s three pages of bar graphs, charts with rising zigzags and number breakdowns sliced and diced in nearly a dozen ways. You can track your milestones from your first find through your 10,000th find and beyond. Geocaching Premium members can follow their geocaching progress on custom maps and more.You can also edit which statistics you see and whether or not they’re available to the rest of the geocaching community. When you’re planning your next geocaching goal, your statistics are a great place to start.What statistic do you track the most? Tell us in comments below. SharePrint RelatedGroundspeak Weekly Newletter – December 28, 2010December 28, 2010In “Groundspeak’s Weekly Newsletter”Four reasons to start using Project-GCMay 30, 2017In “Geocaching Weekly Newsletter”Geocache Icon Run: find the most cache types in one dayApril 19, 2018In “Community” Share with your Friends:Morelast_img read more

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The First Geocaching First-to-Find in Space

first_imgRick Mastracchio with the International Space Station Travel BugAn American astronaut Rick Mastracchio (AstroRM) enters the Geocaching history books. He logged the First-to-Find (FTF) on one of the most exclusive geocaches in existence. It’s a geocache hidden five years ago aboard the International Space Station. The geocache has orbited 260 miles above the Earth since geocaching pioneer and video game designer Richard Garriott created the geocache in 2008.Signed logbook on the International Space Station geocacheAstronaut Rick Mastracchio’s FTF log reads, “The geo space bug (TB5JJN1) has made it to the Russian Service Module, panel 218. He traveled from Waterbury, CT to Houston, TX to Cologne, Germany to Moscow, Star City Russia, to Baikonur Kazakhstan where it launched on a Russian Soyuz Rocket to the International Space Station. He has traveled around the space station and will continue to do so for the next 6 months. When he is not traveling he will be staying with me in my very small crew quarters. He hangs/floats on my wall and waits for more adventures while I do research and perform experiments here on ISS. Thanks for getting this little guy started Cizzors. Every journey starts with the first step and you took the first step of this one. Rick.”Mastracchio thanked fellow Connecticut geocacher Robert Cizauskas (Cizzors) who first introduced the idea of geocaching to the astronaut. More than 26,000 geocachers at nearly 1,200 events around the world celebrated Geocaching in Space during Mastracchio’s launch into orbit.The Travel Bug with hitchhikers to be delivered to schools back on EarthThe Travel Bug is riding along with Mastracchio on an educational mission. He’ll use the Travel Bug as a tool to teach kids back on Earth about geography and science.The Travel Bug  is scheduled to return to Earth when Mastracchio finishes his six-month mission aboard the International Space Station.The previous Travel Bug Richard Garriott carried to the space station remained on-board the ISS for three years. It accumulated more than 350 million miles as it orbited the Earth. That Travel Bug returned to Earth by one of the last U.S. Shuttle missions to visit the International Space Station.Watch the video of Richard Garriott’s mission to space. Leave your best wishes for Rick Mastracchio below in comments.Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedA Geocaching Return From Space After 75,000,000 MilesMay 13, 2014In “Geocaching Quizzes”Geocaching in Space FAQOctober 9, 2013In “Community”#SpaceCaching on Planet Earth – The Photo AlbumNovember 25, 2013With 3 commentslast_img read more

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